10 Things I learnt From 10 Days With Diane Jacobs

Across the end of March and the start of April I spent 10 days straight with Canadian physiotherapist Diane Jacobs, who was in Australia to teach her DermoNeuroModulating (DNM) workshop, which I attended.

Twice.

The first event was held in Noosa, Queensland. It was hosted by Robin Kerr at her recently sold practice, Alchemy in Motion.

The second event was held in Melbourne, Victoria. It was hosted by me at the lovely Parkville hotel The Larwill Studio.

Each event started with a 3 hour lecture by Diane, which covered the theoretical foundation of her work, and was then followed by 3 full days of teaching the manual techniques and clinical reasoning outlined in her book.

I also spent a few days before and after the Melbourne workshop hosting Diane – we went to the zoo, some local pubs and restaurants as well as the Shrine of Rememberance and the National Gallery of Victoria. She even got to have lunch with my mum!

I thought the course was fantastic, overall one of the best courses I have attended, and definitely the best manual therapy course I have attended.

50 Years Is A Long Time

Diane is the same age as my mum. I won’t say what that is exactly (not that I think she’d mind), but she has been in practice for almost 50 years.

Her first years were spent in a hospital setting, which almost turned her off the profession. In fact, she did leave for a short while, but she found her groove, and has never looked back (mostly).

I think anyone who has lived a life, worked thoughtfully and experienced many interactions with people is worth listening to and learning from, and Diane proved me right.

Not David Letterman

In 2013, I took a visceral manipulation course. It was interesting, but implausible. I’d say that Diane’s explanations make more conceptual sense.

One of the benefits of the course was the location – it was in New York City, and while I was there I went to a recording of The Late Show With David Letterman.

His Top 10 lists were great.

I’m not sure I’m of that calibre, but here goes.

NEW YORK – APRIL 24: Dave reads the “Top Ten List” on the Late Show with David Letterman, Friday April 24, 2015 on the CBS Television Network. (Photo by Jeffrey R. Staab/CBS via Getty Images)

On Life

Life mostly works itself out over time. We worry about things we can’t control very much (like outcomes in manual therapy) and cause ourselves a lot of bother, but it mostly works itself out.

On Work

Being a manual therapist is a peaceful way to make a living.

On Not Knowing

It’s okay to not know something, and it’s okay to have a story that may be somewhat, or even entirely inaccurate, as long as you acknowledge it.

The first principle is that you must not fool yourself – and you are the easiest person to fool.


Richard Phillips Feynman 

On Listening

At the Noosa workshop, Diane asked the group if anyone had neck pain, as she was about to demonstrate techniques targeting the occipital nerves.

A man in his sixties volunteered, and she asked him about his pain.

What followed was a 40 minute implicit demonstration of how to listen to someone (not just a patient). Diane seemingly made him feel as they were the only 2 people in the room with her facial expressions, body language and most importantly, her quiet attention.

I really think we need to start considering listening as an intervention itself

Alison Sim

On Manual Therapy

It’s non-specific and n=1 and that’s completely okay.

Additionally, manual therapy can be optimal when it is used for certain presentations (and not very good at all when used for others).

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“For the treatment of pain, manual therapy is always OPTIONAL, but it can be OPTIMAL” – Diane Jacobs ~ So when is manual therapy likely to be optimal? According to Diane, when pain is: ~ ▪ Localised/discrete ▪ Changes with movement/position (ie mechanical) ▪ Changes with distraction ~ Manual therapy is not likely to help (resolve the condition) when: ▪ There are multiple sites of pain that are likely to be the result of central sensitisation ▪ Conditions like fibromyalgia and hyperpathia (basically anything which is highly centralised) ▪ Most (but not all) neuropathic pain ~ I think there is a dearth of research looking at indications and dosage for manual therapy, and as a result (and due to the non specific nature of manual therapy), a lot of research into effectiveness is poor and doesnt help clinical practice. ~ What are your indications for manual therapy? (if you don’t use it, don’t comment, as I know the arguments against, I’m interested in arguments for) ~ #integrativeosteopathy #osteopathy #physiotherapy #massage #manualtherapy #myotherapy #chiropractic #clinicalreasoning

A post shared by Nick Efthimiou (@integrativeosteopathyau) on

On Interoception

Often Diane would ask someone if they had pain in the region she was about to demonstrate techniques for.

One thing that really stood out was how she always wanted to get people aware and thinking about how their body felt, rather than the labels and diagnoses they’d been given.

“Does anyone have a sore back”

“I do”

“Tell me about your sore back”

“I had a disc injury”

“How does that feel?

On Beer

Dark beers are her favourite, but The Damned Pilsener by HopNation in Footscray was pretty nice as well.

On Lifespan

It’s mostly genetic.

People try all kinds of things to live longer, but it’s mostly down to genes, and maybe stress.

On Asymmetry

Asymmetrical structure is normal, common and completely okay.

Habitual asymmetrical use of our body is possibly a predisposing factor for mechanical pain.

  • Sleeping on the same side every night
  • Curling up in the same position on the couch all the time
  • Crossing arms/legs the same way all the time
  • Standing with your weight on one leg
  • Carrying bags/children on one side

Her rationale is that such sustained postures/positions/movements relatively tension and shorten the same neural tissues in the same way over time, impacting their fluid dynamics.

Better awareness leads to better use of our body, which leads to feeling better in our body.

On Diagnostic Errors

Everything is a type 1 error (when it comes to musculoskeletal pain diagnoses).

Most of the pain problems we see in clinical practice have been given structural or biomechanical labels.

Yet, often neither changes when the pain resolves.

Or on the other hand, many people walk around with these structural or biomechanical changes and experience no pain.

She is very comfortable with simply calling something “pain”, treating it conservatively and if it improves, not pursuing it further (she will refer for investigations if it doesn’t and she suspects pathology).

DNM: Just Another Acronym?

Manual therapy is full of acronyms and techniques.

Does DNM bring anything different to the table?

Yes.

DNM isn’t about the techniques, which are lovely, but often just rebadged osteopathic techniques.

DNM is about the clinical reasoning process in manual therapy.

It is about considering the role of the nervous system in pain.

It is about understanding what we can affect with manual therapy (nerves, the most excitable tissue in the body), and what we can’t (muscles, fascia and joints – at least not directly).

DNM was the first approach to manual therapy I came across that not only considered the skin (the only thing we can touch), but the physiology and potential therapeutic effects of treating the skin.

There are no rules for DNM techniques – it’s jazz, not classical music.

It’s not copyrighted.

It’s not a business.

It’s simply one woman’s interpretation of the literature on pain, physiology and manual therapy.

4 Simple Rehab Program Templates

Single leg opposite arm row, an upper body “pulling” exercise which demands stance leg and trunk stability and control.

[Note: This is an expanded form of an excerpt from the manual from my workshop Introduction to Kettlebells for Rehabilitation, which I developed and teach with exercise sciencist and personal trainer James Ross. As a brief background, we categorised the exercises into either push/pull for the upper/lower/core. The concepts below can be applied however you categorise movement for programming purposes.]

It’s easy to find exercises online.

Whether you search by joint, muscle group, movement pattern, you will find hundreds, if not thousands of examples.

This alone should tell you something: there is no one way to exercise.

In fact, the only two rules for exercise that are anything close to written in concrete are:

  1. On adaptation: start where you are (i.e. your current ability), do what you can (i.e. don’t push too hard too soon) and progress over time (without progress you stop adapting).
  2. On specificity: you have to practice what you want to get better at (i.e. if you want to run faster, you have to practice running faster).

With that said, there are definitely better and worse ways to exercise, regardless of your goals.

Better ways are more efficient, more effective, safer and more enjoyable. Worse ways are the opposite.

When it comes to clinic rehabilitation for musculoskeletal pain, exercise is an important intervention. Increasing evidence is mounting showing that for many orthopaedic/musculoskeletal conditions, a well structured rehabilitation program yields similar outcomes to surgery over the long term.

Please don’t confuse this with me saying exercise is the only intervention required for clinical rehabilitation.

It stands to reason that structuring an exercise program optimally will yield better results.

With that in mind, the following are examples of templates I commonly use when designing exercise rehabilitation programs for clients in practice.

Bare Minimum

This is simply a single movement exercise “program”, which I often utilise when there are many barriers to adherence. It can also serve as a “gateway” to a more comprehensive program in early stage rehab.

I would typically advise 1-3 sets performed to fatigue as a minimal dosage. With a set/rep based approach we can manipulate intensity via the rep range. This can be a good way to develop strength, strength endurance or even speed/power.

Otherwise a time based approach (i.e. try and do as many sets of 5 in 10 minutes as you can). With a time based approach, we are using sub maximal loads and accumulating volume. This can be a good way to develop strength endurance and work capacity.

There are 2 main ways to design this single movement program.

  • Load the painful movement:
    • Pain management via local tissue effects and central inhibitory effects
    • Develop functional capacity in local tissues
    • Enhance physiological buffer zone
  • Load the non-painful movement:
    • Pain management via central inhibitory effects
    • Develop functional capacity systemically
    • Address weakness/limitations
    • Enhance physiological buffer zone

The bare minimum approach can also be used with multiple movements – i.e. one movement each day, performed for the prescribed sets/reps/time. These are then cycled through.

An example of a 3 day cycle might be:

  1. Squat
  2. Push up
  3. Inverted row

Each of which is performed for as many sets of 10 reps as possible in a 10 minute window on consecutive days. After the third day, start the cycle again.

Whichever approach you take, with bare minimum programming, you typically want to use compound movements, as they maximise efficiency. So for lower body, things like squats, lunges, step ups and hip hinge variations reign supreme.

Minimalist

Using two exercises allows as to train the whole body or agonist/antagonist movements across a joint. This is a great compromise between time efficiency and effectiveness.

Again, these can be prescribed for sets/reps or time periods (I wouldn’t go less than 10 minutes for two exercises, as the volume ends up being too low).

Some common ways to pair movements include:

  • Upper/Lower pairing
    • Use either complementary pairing i.e. upper push/lower pull or similar pairing i.e. upper push/lower pull or vice versa
    • Pain management via both local tissue effects and/or central inhibitory effects
    • Develop whole body functional capacity
    • Enhance physiological buffer zone
  • Agonist/Antagonist pairing
    • Upper or lower push/pull (e.g. push up and row or squat and kettlebell swing/leg curl)
    • Ideal when local tissue factors are the dominant clinical feature
    • Pain management via both local tissue effects and/or central inhibitory effects
    • Develops local tissue capacity which can enhance the physiological buffer zone

Whole Body

I use Chad Waterbury’s definition of a whole body workout: each workout consists of at least one lower body exercise, along with an upper body push and pull.

(you can have two or more workouts as part of the program, to ensure you develop a variety of movements)

The benefits of a whole body workout start shifting towards central pain inhibitory mechanisms and developing the physiological buffer zone.

Again, you can program this based on sets/reps or time. With more exercises you have the option to perform straight sets, a combination or straight and alternating sets or a circuit format.

As a general rule, straight sets will bias local tissue factors slightly more, while alternating and circuit formats will bias work capacity/central factors slightly more.

I like whole body rehabilitation programs as they allow for work on both strengths and limitations simultaneously, which is good for compliance. We all like to succeed and do what we are good at.

They are also great options for in-season maintenance for athletes. Training 2-3 times per week allows the use of 6-9 key exercises, while other areas can be prioritised – i.e. tactics, skills, recovery (and work, family, social life etc).

Comprehensive

The comprehensive program, using the principles outlined in this manual [referring to our rehab manual] simply means taking one exercise from each category: upper body push and pull, lower body push and pull and core.

You can perform these in a circuit form, paired sets or straight sets depending on the desired outcomes.

This type of program trends more towards maintenance of capacity and physiological buffer zone, as well as ensuring central pain inhibitory mechanisms continue to function optimally.

Comprehensive programs are fantastic for the following scenarios:

  • End-stage rehabiliation of athletes before the return to play
  • Mid-to-end stage rehabilitation of non-athletes who are not otherwise active
  • Health-promoting effects of older people, who may be suffering from age related sarco and ostepenia, as well as reduced cardiac capacity
  • Simple preventative home exercise programs for sufferers of chronic low back pain
  • A way to engage sufferers of conditions like fibromyalgia in strength training (you can minimise the dosage and spread the loading across the whole body)

Conclusions

Rehabilitation is complex, but it doesn’t have to be complicated.

By having a set of different templates you can draw on for different scenarios, you can make your exercise prescription more systematic and efficient, leaving more time and brain power to think about and discuss the more human variables surrounding rehabilitation.

Things like goals, interests, barriers and facilitators to adherence and everything else that is important in holistic pain management.

Nick Efthimiou Osteopath

This blog post was written by Nick Efthimiou (Osteopath), founder of Integrative Osteopathy.

This blog post is meant as an educational tool only. It is not a replacement for medical advice from a qualified and registered health professional.

Clinical Reasoning In Manual Therapy

Touch is an important part of human interaction.

Pain is an unpleasant human experience.

Touch conveys meaning that words often cannot.

Pain is often hard, if not impossible to put into words.

It is not surprising that touching people in pain is a common ritual, and it has likely been performed for thousands of years of humanity.

Touching people in pain has now evolved into specialised forms of physical therapy, from massage to manipulation and everything in between. However, what it all boils down to is touch and narrative.

Many therapists, and particularly those who define themselves by what they do (like osteopaths), will be upset to hear that I don’t think manual therapy has to (or can be) very specific to be effective for pain relief.

Manual Therapy is Applied Force

In his excellent book The Science and Practice of Manual Therapy, osteopath and researcher, Dr Eyal Lederman describes the 2 types of force you can apply to a body with your hands, instruments or body:

  1. Tension forces
  2. Compression forces

He elaborates that combinations of these two forces can also be applied, yielding resultant forces such as:

  • Torsional forces
  • Shearing forces
  • Bending forces

When you consider the other variables relating to applied force:

  • Direction
  • Speed (technically velocity)
  • Duration
  • Rhythm/frequency
  • No of cycles

You can then begin to develop different techniques.

Techniques have historically been name in anatomical terms (myofascial release, joint articulation) or by descriptors of what the technique involves or a proposed mechanism (high velocity-low amplitude – HVLA, counterstrain, muscle-energy technique/proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation).

Clinically, most therapists will say that different techniques (aka different applications of forces) result in different clinical effects and outcomes.

While there is some research to suggest there are different descending modulation pathways that are stimulated with different manual therapy techniques, overall, our current body of knowledge suggests that the effects are non-specific.

The (Non-Specific) Effects of Manual Therapy

Referring back to Lederman’s book, we can describe the effects of manual therapy in 3 main areas:

  1. Tissue effects, which are primarily local
  2. Neurological effects (yes, the nervous system is tissue, but this relates to function of the nervous system)
  3. Psychological effects

You Can’t Change Tissues, Directly

One of the big misnomers surrounding manual therapy is that it directly changes tissues like muscles, ligaments and fascia.

This is not the case – and it doesn’t make biological sense for it to be.

Imagine, if a pair of hands touching you for a few minutes could stretch out your muscles. What would happen to your muscles as you sit down, or sleep?

Manual therapy can possibly stimulate some cellular responses via mechanotransduction.

  • Mechanotransduction is the physiological process where cells sense and respond to mechanical loads. It is independent of the nervous system.
  • Mechanotherapy is the therapeutic application of force/load, used to differentitate between homeostatic mechanotransduction.

A 2012 study, Massage therapy attenuates inflammatory signaling after exercise-induced muscle damage, demonstrated this.

While it was quite a small study, with only 11 participants, it shed light on some cellular effects as a result of massage.

The researchers induced muscle fatigue/damage via exercise (stationary cycling) and then massaged one thigh and used the other as a control.

They found that massage activated the mechanotransduction signaling pathways:

  • Focal adhesion kinase (FAK)
  • Extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)
  • Potentiated mitochondiral biogenesis signaling [nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)
  • Mitgated the rise in nuclear factor κB (NFκB) nuclear accumulation

However, whether at all this is clinically relevant remains to be seen. It is one small study, and most other studies demonstrate a very small effect as well.

What is relevant, is that there is a benefit to tissue repair, particularly in the first 2 weeks after injury from harmonic articulation. This is outlined further in Lederman’s text, but considering that pain often leads to decreased use of tissues, this should be considered as a potential therapeutic option.

So it is fair to say that tissue effects, via mechanotransduction are not relevant to the clinical outcomes resulting from manual therapy.

In part, this is because of the way force is distributed by the body.

The Frictionless Skin-Fascia Interface

Between the skin/subcutaneous fascia exists a frictionless interface. That is, the skin will slide over the fascia below it. Think about this, if this didn’t happen, you could pull your subcutaneous tissues around (this would not be good).

As a result, only force applied perpendicular to bone affects bone – tangential force is dissipated.

This knowledge has implications for manual therapy: can you really shear a fibula or radius? What about a vertebrae?

It’s not possible.

Again, thank goodness.

NeuroModulation?

The most likely effect of manual therapy on pain seems to be facilitating “the drug cabinet in the brain” by descending modulation.

Descending modulation is an important biological process that is protective of us in times of threat, but also helpful in managing pain.

It is known that manual therapy, and even touch can cause the brain to release inhibitory neurotransmitters that modulate pain, most likely at the spinal cord level.

As mentioned above, different types of manual therapy seem to evoke slightly different modulation responses.

Psycho(social) Effects of Touch

Touch is the most important sense we have. Without it, we cannot entirely feel pleasure or pain – we are less than human. – David J. Linden

Psychological effects have some crossover with neurological effects, and tend to evoke:

  • Descending modulation
  • ANS changes
  • Pleasant feelings (positive affect)

People can discern meaning from touch – thus can create therapeutic context with touch.

Think about this, if you caress a loved one, versus firmly grab them around the forearm, does the evoke different thoughts and feelings?

In their paper, The Skin As A Social Organ, the authors argue

However, because the skin is the site of events and processes crucial to the way we think about, feel about, and interact with one another, touch can mediate social perceptions in various ways.

The authors cite 3 mechanisms by which the skin can convey social meaning:

  1. Through affiliative behavior and communication
  2. Via affective processing in skin-brain pathways
  3. As a basis for intersubjective representation

I have never heard this described in any manual therapy course, or through my years of university study, yet it is arguably a bigger factor than mobilising joints or stretching muscles.

The Devil Is In The Dosage

There is scant (read: no) good research on dosage for manual therapy.

Practically, dosage is often constrained by patient/practitioner availability and resources (time, money etc).

Within a session, we can do more manual therapy or less. That much is obvious. However, it is hard to prescribe a dosage for intensity, unlike say, exercise.

That is because, as discussed above, the effects of manual therapy do not rely on mechanical stimulation, but rather contextual facilitation, affective change and possibly (probably) expectation.

So a simple way to gauge the response to manual therapy for dosage reasons is:

In other words, if you can gauge a response (within session changes) and measure the adaptation (between session changes) you can reverse engineer the dosage.

Within Session Changes: What to Look For

The responses we are looking for are often subtle, and if missed, can easily lead to overstimulus.

These are (tanks to Barrett Dorko for a couple of these):

  • Softening: a subjective feeling from either patient or practitioner of the tissues softening
  • Warmth: a noticeable increase in superficial warmth, typically explained as an increase in cutaneous blood flow
  • Movement: this is often spontaneous and effortless (think of a person “adjusting” themselves on the treatment table), but it can also be improved movement based on pre/post clinical assessment.

It is important to realise that within session improvements do not suggest resolution, only that there as been a response to the implied stimulus.

Is It Effective Though?

None of this matters if manual therapy isn’t clinically effective.

Here’s the rub (pun not intended): there is low quality evidence to suggest manual therapy can help certain conditions, while there is high(er) quality evidence that shows a smaller effect.

There is evidence (of varying quality) to suggest manual therapy can also influence the following processes:

  • Affects ANS
  • Affects tissue tone and ROM
  • Affects lymphatic system
  • Affects immune system
  • Affects haemodynamics
  • Descending modulation

Hence I favour a process based approach over a condition based approach to clinical reasoning.

This means that you aim to influence processes that are involved in the patient’s presenting complaint.

Putting It Altogether

In order for manual therapy to have a positive clinical effect, we have to apply the right dosage. In practice, underdosing is preferable to overdosing, as you can always do more, but you cannot take away work that has been performed.

We also know that manual therapy is non-specific, but different techniques potentially effect different descending modulation pathways. With this in mind, using a variety of forces (tension, compression, twisting etc) with a variety of variables (direction, duration, magnitude, frequency etc) will provide a hedge of sorts when an individual’s response and preferences are not fully known or understood. This can be modified over time as the practitioner-patient relationship develops.

Finally, we know that we can’t affect tissues, but we can affect processes, so again, as a hedge of sorts, it is preferable to treat a large proportion of the physical body over a localised approach. The exception to this is harmonic style techniques in the early stages of injury to enhance repair.

Conclusions

Two governing quotes govern my thinking around manual therapy for the treatment of pain:

When pain is the primary complaint, treatment of pain should be primary. – Barrett Dorko, PT

And the second:

Manual therapy is optional, but it can be optimal (for the treatment of pain). – Diane Jacobs, physiotherapist

If we understand the likely processes involved in manual therapy, and we acknowledge what we don’t know, along with what we know with a high degree of certainty is unlikely, then I can see well explained and well executed manual therapy continuing to play a role in therapy for many years to come.

If we continue to “treat anatomy” in relation to pain, then over time, funding from health systems and insurers will dry up, as the link between anatomy and pain is tenuous at best.

Finally, we have to give patients a voice. If patients determine they receive a benefit that is meaningful to them, we cannot discount that, as long as they understand the nature of the benefit (i.e. often transient and part of a bigger picture approach to health and pain management).

Workshop

If the topic of clinical reasoning and evidence informed practice with manual therapy interests you, come along to the 3 and a half day DermoNeuroModulation workshop in Melbourne at the end of March (presented by author and developer of the method, Diane Jacobs, who I’ve referenced throughout this post).

Details via the embedded link below.

Comments From Past Attendees:


Nick Efthimiou Osteopath

This blog post was written by Nick Efthimiou (Osteopath), founder of Integrative Osteopathy.

This blog post is meant as an educational tool only. It is not a replacement for medical advice from a qualified and registered health professional.

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References

A Process Model in Manual and Physical Therapies http://www.cpdo.net/Lederman_A_Process_model_in_Manual_and_Physical_Therapies.pdf

Mechanotherapy: how physical therapists prescription of exercise promotes tissue repair https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/43/4/247

Mechanotransduction: use the force(s) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4491211/

The frictionless properties at the thoracic skin-fascia interface: implications in spine manipulation https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12034123

The relationship between the application angle of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) and resultant accelerations in an in situ porcine model https://www.mskscienceandpractice.com/article/S1356-689X(08)00170-7/pdf

Three-Dimensional Mathematical Model for Deformation of Human Fasciae in Manual Therapy http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2093620

Massage therapy attenuates inflammatory signaling after exercise-induced muscle damage https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22301554

The Mechanisms of Manual Therapy in the Treatment of Musculoskeletal Pain: A Comprehensive Model https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2775050/

Pain https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26304172

Mobilization and Manipulation of the Cervical Spine in Patients With Cervicogenic Headache: Any Scientific Evidence? https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27047446

Manual therapy, exercise therapy or combined treatment in the management of adult neck pain – A systematic review and meta-analysis. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28750310

The efficacy of manual therapy and exercise for treating non-specific neck pain: A systematic review https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5814665/

Effectiveness of conservative interventions including exercise, manual therapy and medical management in adults with shoulder impingement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/51/18/1340

Manipulation and mobilization for treating chronic low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis https://www.thespinejournalonline.com/article/S1529-9430(18)30016-0/abstract

Exercise, Manual Therapy, and Booster Sessions in Knee Osteoarthritis: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis From a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29088393

Does manual therapy improve pain and function in patients with plantar fasciitis? A systematic review. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29686479

Manual lymphatic drainage for lymphedema following breast cancer treatment. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25994425

Manual Therapy Influences on the Autonomic Nervous System https://www.otago.ac.nz/physio/research/otago363201.html

Acute electromyographic responses of deep thoracic paraspinal muscles to spinal manual therapy interventions. An experimental, randomized cross-over study. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28750955

Changes in biochemical markers following spinal manipulation-a systematic review and meta-analysis https://www-sciencedirect-com.wallaby.vu.edu.au:4433/science/article/pii/S246878121730067X

Assessment of skin blood flow following spinal manual therapy: A systematic review https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25261088

The Role of Descending Modulation in Manual Therapy and Its Analgesic Implications: A Narrative Review https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4695672/

Further Reading

The Science and Practice of Manual Therapy – Eyal Lederman

DermoNeuroModulating – Diane Jacobs

Clinical Neurodynamics – Michael Schacklock

Touch – David J. Linden